Giampaolo Silvestri speech at the High-Level panel: "Gross Human Rights Violations Due to the Aggression Against Ukraine", Trusteeship Council Chamber, UN Headquarters in New York City
Violations of the rights of the child
Our first-hand experience – being in the field offers us a direct view, closeness and understanding of the true needs of Ukrainian children and their families.
AVSI’s approach in responding to the violation of children’s rights in conflicts has been tested in different contexts. It originates in Rwanda, after the 1994 genocide, then was practiced in Northern Uganda, DRC, Kenya, Ivory Coast, South Sudan, in Eastern Europe, in the Middle East region since the beginning of the Syrian crisis and now in Ukraine. Experience taught us that only a multi-sectoral, holistic approach – which includes all the factors contributing to the child well-being (medical and psychological care, food, shelter, education) – has a real impact in responding to their needs and addressing the violation to their rights.
Furthermore, AVSI makes use of a community approach also in conflicts, by fostering the involvement and activation of family members (when present), local associations, religious communities and others, in order to build a safe environment for every child.
What we see, the context and the war’s impact on the rights of children
Here are a few numbers we should remember: since the beginning of the war in Ukraine, 429 children were killed and 808 injured (OCHA Situation Report, Last updated: 10 Feb 2023).
The war has caused immense mental trauma on children exposed to the horrors of fighting and hostilities. War trauma, social isolation, daily struggles without power and heating, displacement-related challenges and more: all these factors are expected to cause long-lasting mental health issues, for up to at least five years after the war ends.
What we see as children’s violations Family separation or disrupted family relations, including forcible transfers to Russia; exposure to abuse and exploitations either as victims or witnesses; attacks on schools and hospitals which deprive children of access to education and medical services. Children also suffer the consequences of their parents distress conditions.
I will now mention some clear examples of the dimension and dire consequences of the Ukrainian crisis:
- massive destruction of schools and forced displacement have severely impacted children and hampered the education system across the country. The 2005 UN Security Council Resolution that identifies and condemns the six grave violations against children in times of war includes, as the third one, “attacks on schools or hospitals”. According to the Government of Ukraine, 2,917 education facilities have been bombed or shelled during the war, with damage or destruction to 580 such facilities documented by OHCHR
- the energy crisis exacerbated these challenges, as online classes were affected by internet and electricity disruptions
- the forced displacement increased risks of family separation and abuse, exposing Ukrainian children to immense trauma
- social isolation further exacerbated such trauma, as many children had limited, or even no more contact with friends, as they were evacuated or unreachable due to communications breakdowns.
since the beginning of the war in Ukraine, 429 children were killed and 808 injuredOCHA Situation Report, Last updated: 10 Feb 2023
What do to? Education first
Due to our history and mission, AVSI always dedicates special attention to education, a key issue in emergency and development interventions.
We are following the same approach in the Ukrainian war, working hard to ensure the necessary support to children (and their families), to uphold their right to education and access to adequate childcare services. While responding to multiple needs, we try to safeguard continuity in learning and safe and inclusive spaces to do so, whenever possible, adopting a comprehensive and multi-stakeholder approach.
How to proceed?
- A regional approach: since the beginning, we took a regional approach in our response to the Ukrainian crisis. This allows us to have a broad overview of the current situation, to follow the refugee flows and the impact of the war on different areas and sectors. This is a crisis without borders.
Up to now, we supported around 200,000 people (local population in Ukraine, IDPs and refugees) thanks to emergency response interventions in Ukraine (in Lviv, Poltava, Sumy, Kharkiv), Poland, Romania and Italy.
- The role of civil society organizations We work closely together with local organizations: in every region where we operate, we promote the role of civil society organizations and partners (Caritas Spes and others, local NGOs, etc.), as they are closer to the most vulnerable people and can identify their authentic needs. Their position allows them to increase mutual understanding and to create a stable link between foreign organizations and local reality, which is essential to carry out effective actions.
As a matter of fact, we could be present and at work in Ukraine thank you to all our donors, particularly I have to thank you and recognize the key role of the Italian Minister of Foreign Affairs and the AICS, the Italian Agency for Development Cooperation, UN agencies (OCHA, UNICEF, UNESCO, UNDP, UNOPS) EU , EU (ECHO), pooled funds like Education Cannot Wait and private foundations.
How to defend and promote the right to education?
The following suggestions and recommendations are rooted in our current experience and presence in Ukraine:
- Always finding new solutions to support the continuity of education services: children have to be supported in the learning process, including psychological support, as well as benefit from the provision of learning kits and recreational materials. AVSI is currently establishing 10 digital learning centres in the oblasts of Kharkiv, Poltava and Sumy to support access to distance learning.
- Rehabilitating learning spaces – where safety conditions allow it: we have to make sure children are back in school as soon as possible, as it means to be back to normalcy. For instance, we rehabilitated 28 schools in three of the oblasts among the ones most affected by the conflict.
- Creating spaces where children can meet other children, to let them regain a time and space where they can actually be children again, far from the anxiety and fear, at least for a little while. We are currently supporting 12 child-friendly spaces, reaching a total of 5,000 children with recreational activities and psychosocial support.
- Training teachers on psychosocial support and referral mechanisms for children and/or provide them with various teaching resources, kits and guides. Teachers and other educational personnel are front-liners, they reported challenges in supporting students and their mental health and well-being. We trained 120 teachers (currently employed in the public-school system) in child protection and psychosocial support, while also providing them with education-in-emergency toolkits.
- Supporting the children’s parents and families, their caregivers, through positive parenting sessions and psychosocial support to avoid a potential increase in violence and conflict inside the family. 850 parents and caregivers strengthened their skills in psychosocial support and positive parenting thanks to AVSI’s training.
- Collaborating with local authorities in strategic planning, in line with the required process of reforms and according to the accountability principle. For instance, we have been coordinating with the Ukrainian authorities, especially in the highly affected oblast of Kharkiv, to select beneficiaries and choose target locations.
- Promoting partnerships with civil society organizations, which are better placed to enter the hardest-to-reach communities, including those close to the front line, where needs are dramatically acute.
- Promoting advocacy actions and raise awareness on the destiny of Ukrainian children: their destiny is not separated from the one of our own children, who are growing up in a peaceful country. We must activate communities where we test and show evidence that the “other” is a value for me and not an enemy.
Last but not least: we cannot forget the Ukrainian children who are living in Eastern Ukraine, in areas under Russian military control. They, too, need support and help. Due to the restrictions (on movement of humanitarian staff and the blockage of relief supplies across the front line), however, we have no way of knowing how they are, what they need.
We can’t forget them.
The registration of Giampaolo Silvestri - AVSI Secretary General at the High Panel "Gross Human Rights Violations Due to the Aggression Against Ukraine” - Feb 22, at United Nation Headquarter